Introduction to Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder affecting children as well as adults. The patient experiences episodes of convulsive body movements medically termed as seizures. The seizures are typically described and observed as spasmodic, irregular body movements, affecting various muscle groups of body. It may present with varying intensity and duration, and different groups of muscles in different individuals, at different times.

Epilepsy is a chronic disease having a tendency to relapse periodically and for many years to life time, if not adequately treated.

Causes of epilepsy:


Physical causes:
  • Trauma
  • Space occupying lesion
  • Stroke
  • Very raised blood pressure
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Isoniazid
  • Phenothiazine
Metabolic causes:
  • Hypoglycemia (low sugar level)
  • Hyperglycemia (high sugar level)
  • Hypoxia low oxygen level)
  • Uremia
  • Hyponatraemia (low sodium level)
  • Hypernatraemia (high sodium level)
  • Hypocalcaemia
  • Liver diseases
  • Alcohol withdrawal
  • Drugs-phenothiazines,cocaine,benzodiazepines
Infections
  • Encephalitis
  • Syphilis
  • Cysticercosis
  • HIV